The story tells that the first Arab specimens arrived in India in 1290, the traveler who accompanied them was Marco Polo who writes “In this port of Aden where merchants obtain steeds of purebred Arab blood with those who collect huge benefits in India, because you should know that in that country you get to sell enough horses for 100 silver frames or more. ” Another of the quotations of the traveler, written in 1292, is “It is said that ships from West, Hormuz, and Kis (island of the Persian gofo) arrive here, as well as from Aden and all of Arabia, loaded with horses and other merchandise. “The Persian tradition of owning horses of great size and beauty was introduced by the Mongol governors, and they were the first to import gararones in order to improve Indian breeds, as did Emperor Akhbar, who succeeded him with this tradition two centuries. The most important vestige of the type of race that existed in this period is shown in the miniature and ancient paintings of 1628.
The importation of Arab horses was continuous until the end of the 19th century, from Iran, Iraq, and the Persian Gulf. The attention was less to the pedigree than to the speed and appearance; however, over time, the Arab played an important predominance throughout the continent.
The Arab is distinguished by its elegance in the head and the silky of its mane and layers, they have a remarkable resistance in their passage and feeding, the most notorious characteristic of this national race is its volatile temperament. It has various aspects and sizes, from the Tutor, which does not exceed 1.2 m. of elevation, until the pony of polo of 1.4 to 1.5 m., the latter used as a draft animal, runner, cross country hunter and army mount.
In 1902 a stud was established in Ahmednagar, which was administered by the Department of the Army’s Lift, the purpose, to provide free services of excellent Arabian stallions and thoroughbred to breeders, improving the national caste. This organization is still valid. A similar stud was established in Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh in the Ganges Valley.
It was at the opposite end of the world, where the influence of Arabic is even more pronounced as Poland which has no rival since it has played an important role in horse breeding; They have been specifically dedicated to the army, agriculture, racing, shooting, hunting, and international land meetings.
The war catastrophe left this breed almost extinct, but thanks to the initiative of the Poles, this race was reestablished. It was in World War II when the race was again devastated, but with the export of the different specimens, the Polish lineage continued to prevail. As an example, we have the Wielkopolski, which has a mixture of Arab blood and Trakehner, of fine print, its elevation ranges in 1.53 m. Its appearance is that of a hunter.
In addition to Poland, one of the countries that are characterized by having an important horse tradition in Germany, among which one of them stands out is the Hanoverian, which is a descendant of the German horse of the Middle Ages, this was a war steed. Currently, this specimen has acquired greater refinement due to the introduction of pure English blood. We also find the Trakehner or horse of East Prussia, descendant of a cross of Smudish horses of Lithuania, with part of Arab blood and thoroughbred, the elevation of this specimen ranges between 1.3 and 1.5 m, hich is representative especially in Baltic countries William I founded a stud for the Trakehner race in 1732, in which he donated the land and the ancestry to the imperial government, as well as top quality Arabian stallions. Subsequently, he was given access to thoroughbred gutters, the magnificent result of the crosses of this type of specimens, gave rise to the most versatile specimen in Europe. Today, this stud is still valid.
In parallel to the Arab race, we find the Lipizzano, a breed that grows mainly in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. This breed originated in the Lipizza stud farm, near Trieste, founded in 1580 by Archduke Carlos, son of Emperor Ferdinand I.
The original lineage emerged from a mixture of varieties of which the Austrian Kladruber, the Spanish, and the Arab Jenet stand out. The Hungarian Shagyas, an intermediary in the evolution of Lipizzano, is raised in the Hungarian national stud, in babolna.
The Soviet Union, due to the vast expanse of territory, has a large number of horses and ponies, such as the gold Akhal-Teke and the Orlov trotter.
The most recent breed in the world is American horse breeding. However, this breed is characterized by having produced a great variety of races, and such is the case of the Morgan, which were the first American trotting race, however with the passage of the years have become all-purpose horses. Another breed that surpasses this specimen is the Standardbred.
The United States is also distinguished by having the largest population of pure Arabs.
In South America, the influence of Arabic is seen in the Creole, or pony of the gauchos, which have traces that come from the Arab and Berber races, which were introduced by the Spanish conquerors. The Creoles are characterized by their resistance and docility, the Zaino fur, is often confused with the sandy extensions of its natural environment, a fact that characterizes this breed.
The “native” ponies undoubtedly belong to Great Britain, which are descendants of the original lineage, which inhabited the marshes, hills, and forests.
In 1540, Henry VIII of England decreed that all those specimens not reaching 1.40 m should be eliminated. Of size, this as a result of the improvement of horse breeding, the result of this event was the elimination of large quantities of white, invalid or small specimens, however the ponies were very useful for the defense of the kingdom, the owners for not to eliminate the race completely they were given the task of crossing these specimens with other types, at that time the races began and there was a great variety of Arab copies and thoroughbred.
In 1756 Dorsetshire, who was a farmer, in an auction acquired a thoroughbred to which he gave the name of Marske, taking him to the New Forest district , Marske was stallion of the Dorsetshire mares, previously this specimen belonged to the Duke of Cumberland, during his stay spawned Eclipse, famous in the races. Zoreb was ceded by Queen Victoria in 1852, and he cohabited with the New Forest mares for eight years, the New Forest pony is a defined type, its height is 1.40 m., Easy to walk due to its harmonious proportions, Useful for the harness for the firmness of its passage and calm temperament.
The pony of the mountains of Wales, is the most attractive British pony breed, its unmistakably Arab race. In this region, we also find the Hackney horse.
Of the most precious races that have Arab blood and whose class is comparable to pure English blood, is Anglo-Arab. This breed connects the two purest strains, the thoroughbred and the Arab. The Arab Horse Society, in Great Britain, is responsible for the genealogical record and defines the breed as “The Anglo-Arabs” are the product of the cross between an English thoroughbred stallion and an Arabian mare or vice versa, with the resulting cross-linking; that is to say, in their pedigrees there are no races other than pure blood or Arab. ”
The value of Arab blood reaches its maximum manifestation in the English thoroughbred horse, which is considered to be the most appreciated breed in the world.
Lady Wentworth, in her work Horses of Britain, cites “The English thoroughbred, although of foreign blood, is called English, for having been raised and improved in England for a long time, and thoroughbred because it comes from the Arabic Kehailan term with which Arabs designate their purebred horses, and whose literal translation is precise of the purest blood.
The importation of Arabs to England was constant during the Tudor period. The speed, elegance, and quality of the garages imported from the East stimulated the sport of riding, thus beginning the fame of some specimens, whether as winners or parents in the races. Being the quality of their offspring, the best proof of the purity of their lineage.
The largest contribution was due to three imported Arab garages:
The Turkish Byerley (1684 – 1690)
The Darley Arab (1700)
The Arab Godolphin (1730)
All the existing thoroughbreds are descendants in the direct male line, of these three gararones, through 30 generations, which arrived in England approximately 250 or 300 years ago.